Ethnicity, Race + Nationality

Resources

General

Immigration

Marginalized Groups

Asian Americans

Black and Brown People

First Nations / Indigenous / Native Peoples

Latine/Latinx/Latina/Latino Americans

Palestinians

Articles

General

The history of mixed race, multiracialbiracial, and other terms.

Tips on addressing racism with someone who was racially offensive or insensitive.

“In 2016, researchers stumbled on a radical tactic for reducing another person’s bigotry: a frank, brief conversation.”

Asian Diaspora

Categorizing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders as “other” in the criminal justice system fails to acknowledge the vast disparities within the group and feeds the harmful “model minority” myth.

Jokes about Asians being good at math “might seem funny at first, but the underlying message is clear: Asian people aren’t seen as human beings; they are calculating machines…In other words, they are dehumanized.”

BAME, BIPOC, and POC

“We choose not to be reduced to an inaccurate grouping. But what we have in common is that we are…’People who experience racism’. T​his​ term will require you to then articulate who you are referring to.”

“Broad, all-inclusive sweeps are convenient and comfortable—and sometimes, for the sake of progress, we need them—but they can also do great damage.”

“When people find themselves struggling to find the best language to talk about identities, [PhD linguistics student deandre miles-hercules] argues that they should think more critically about what exactly they are trying to say.”

Black Diaspora

Coded Language + Euphemisms

How use of the word the before any racial group creates distance and puts them in one monolithic category.

“Why the semantic somersaults when it comes to race? We never hear anti-Semitic rhetoric described as ‘religiously tinged.’”

“The position that needs the most change might be the broadcast booth. That’s where African-American quarterbacks are still described more for their physicality than intellect.”

Design + Technology

Filipine/Filipinx/Pilipinx Diaspora

Food + Travel

Immigration

When immigrants of color are described as “pouring in,” “swamping,” “flooding in,” or as “coming in ‘tides’ and ‘waves.’”

Israel + Palestine

“Often, the target of criticism is language that appears to equivocate between unequal sides.”

“To present this as an attack-and-response conflict between two sides is to actively conceal the fact that only one ‘side’ of the ‘conflict’ controls all the levers of power.”

“The firm analyzed nearly 100,000 news headlines about the conflict in the American press over the past five decades and found that the Israeli point of view was featured much more prominently than the Palestinian one, and that references to Palestinians’ experiences of being ‘refugees’ or living under ‘occupation’ have steadily declined.”

“The report [from B’Tselem, a leading human rights group in Israel] found that Israel meets the definition of apartheid under international law, which defines apartheid as ‘inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them.'”

Journalism

“The reporters did not create a safe space for people to speak…This kind of journalistic practice is actually not about Tiananmen, but a conscious—and stylistic—choice that is commonly adopted to frame ignorance and silence.” —Tony Lin, video journalist, Quartz

Latine/Latinx/Latina/Latino Diaspora

“The objective of the term Latine is to remove gender from the Spanish word Latino, by replacing it with the gender-neutral Spanish letter E. This idea is native to the Spanish language and can be seen in many gender-neutral words like ‘estudiante’.”

From Latin@ to Latinx to Latine, a look at the complexities of creating and adopting inclusive language.

The need for an inclusive, non-gender-conforming term for Latina and Latino, and the arguments against using an x.

Chicana/Chicano/Chicanx: “These proposed shifts in language…remind us that there has never been consensus around the terms that should define our complex communities.”

Middle East and North Africa Diaspora

Native/Indigenous Peoples

Different perspectives on the terms Native, indigenous, Native American, American Indian, Indian, and First American, and the preference for tribal references.

“In Hawaii, the word Hawaiian is understood as an ethnic designation for a native person of Polynesian descent, and its use in the more general sense ‘a resident of Hawaii’ is considered an error.”

“We downgrade ourselves, and our status, as nations and peoples when we fail to choose the most powerful terms in English to express our political identity.”

Terms include: pre-history, Canada’s Indigenous Peoples, Crown land, and stakeholders.

On the use of powwow, squaw, “go off the reservation,” and other offensive language.

Phrases include bury the hatchet, chief, circle the wagons, hold down the fort, Indian style, Indian giver, long time no see, off the warpath, powwow, rain dance, savage, shaman, spirit animal, tribe, vision quest, war paint.

Non-English Words

Reclamation + Slurs

“Instead of having the term be overtaken by a weaponized colonial construction as an insult, [Abenaki scholar Marge Bruchac] advocates for reclaiming squaw‘s original meaning as a term of honor and respect towards women.”

“I encounter a lot of people who tell me that they never knew the word ‘gypped’ had anything to do with gypsies, or that it’s offensive—especially when the word is heard not read. My response to them is, That’s okay. You didn’t know but now you do. So stop using it. It may mean nothing to you, but when we hear it, it still hurts.” —Ian Hancock, professor, University of Texas at Austin

White Diaspora

“The use of an outdated and disproven term that falsely purports to describe a separate race of people has no place in the U.S.”